Chevron and Shell must pay $1bn each to deal with Niger Delta oil spills - New Generation Africa leading the campaign.
Amnesty said the community's UK lawyers suggested the spill had leaked 4,000 barrels a day for 10 weeks, which would make it bigger than the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska.
"Those who used to rely on fishing for a living have lost their incomes and livelihoods. Farmers say their harvests are smaller than before. Overall, people in Bodo are now much less able to grow their own food or catch fish," the report said.
Amnesty urged SPDC to set up a $1bn clean up fund, citing Bodo as an example of a place needing urgent attention.
"SPDC has publicly acknowledged that two oil spills that affected the Bodo community in 2008 were caused by operational issues," Shell spokesman Precious Okolobo said, adding Shell estimated the total size of the spill to be 4,000 barrels.
"The reality is that our efforts to undertake cleanup in Bodo have been hampered by the repeated impact of sabotage and bunkering spills," he added.
Oil is often spilled during sabotage attacks on facilities and bunkering – tapping pipelines to steal crude. Okolobo said 150,000 barrels of oil are stolen each day in the Delta.
"If Amnesty really wanted to make a difference … it would join with us in calling for more action to address this criminal activity, which is responsible for the majority of spills."
But Amnesty said even if some spills were caused by theft, "this does not justify a failure to clean up after an oil spill – all oil companies are required to do so, regardless of cause."
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