In the evening the pair returned to the Palace for a dinner and dance, expected to continue into the early hours.
The couple will now be known as the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.
Police estimate a million people lined the procession route from the abbey to the palace following the wedding.
Prince William later drove his new bride back to Clarence House, following a buffet reception at Buckingham Palace, at the wheel of his father's classic blue Aston Martin, before returning to the palace in the evening.
The vehicle was decked in ribbons and balloons with "Just Wed" on the number plate.
The couple are attending an evening reception at Buckingham Palace
The church service, watched by 1,900 guests, ran smoothly but the prince did struggle to place the wedding ring on the duchess's finger.
Following a long tradition, the ring has been fashioned from Welsh gold given to Prince William by the Queen.
After the couple said their vows - in which the bride did not promise to obey her husband - the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Reverend Dr Rowan Williams, declared: "I pronounce that they be man and wife together, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen."
They spent a private moment together with their families, as they signed the marriage register.
Prince William has been given the title of the Duke of Cambridge by the Queen, and Miss Middleton has become Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cambridge on their marriage.
The duchess, who managed to keep her wedding dress a secret, wore an ivory and lace gown by Sarah Burton at Alexander McQueen. The prince wore the red tunic of an Irish Guards colonel - his most senior honorary appointment.
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